The Wright Flyer, which can be found within the Museum of Technology, was the first powered, sustained, controlled and heavier-than-air craft that had been flown by humans. It was designed by the brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright and was flown four times on the 17th of December, 1903.
The Wright brothers had been attempting to create an airplane for some time by the dawn of the Wright Flyer, mainly experimenting with gliders. They funded their research with the profits from their brand of bicycles. The first successful flight marked a effectively the start of aviation history, and is as such the Wright Flyer is seen as the first, if not the father of, modern aeroplanes.
In 2277, the Flyer can be found on the floor of the Museum of Technology in a destroyed and shattered state, possibly the cause of malicious damage considering the state of the building itself as well as other exhibits. For example, the Valiant 11 lunar lander is intact, and a P-51 Mustang can still be found attached to one of the ceilings. This is further evidenced by the fact that most of the 'reachable' exhibits have been looted and destroyed.
The Wright Flyer appears only in Fallout 3.