Your character is suffering the effects of withdrawl.”— Fallout Tactics in-game description
When using chems or alcohol, the effects of these substances disappear after some time. If the user becomes addicted to a substance, withdrawal will occur when the drug is no longer in their system. In Fallout 3, Fallout: New Vegas and Fallout 4, addictions must be treated by a doctor (or, temporarily, with more chems), or the withdrawal persists. In Fallout 4, Addictol can also treat addiction.
During this period of withdrawal, some of the stats are lowered, often the ones that were increased under the influence of the chem that gave the addiction. Some perks and traits, like Psychotic or Chem Resistant, have an effect on these withdrawals.
In Fallout 4, your addiction debuffs can be shown on the STAT page of the Pip-Boy by hitting the Show Effects button.