Drinking it increases Strength and Charisma by 1, but at the cost of lowering Intelligence by 1. As with all alcoholic drinks, consuming whiskey runs the risk of addiction, which is curable by doctors for a fee.
The whiskey is labeled "Olde Royale Premium Whiskey."
If you look closely at the label on the bottle, you can see a picture of Galileo Galilei in the lower right hand corner.
Whiskey is easy to spot when out in the environment. It has a slight orange glow to it, although the glow is not nearly as bright as Nuka-Cola Quantum.
SatCom Array NN-03d has miniature versions of full and empty whiskey bottles being used as chess pieces in an upstairs room. This is a possible reference to the movie (and novel) Our Man In Havana, in which a game of chess is played with miniature bottles of whiskey instead of regular chess pieces.