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The upgrade description reads "Increases VATS hit chance." It increases VATS hit chance by roughly 9-10%. (Tested on a stationary turret over multiple distances, compared against without the upgrade).
The 'sensor array' upgrade "increases perception" by 2 points. This results in a very similar VATS hit chance when compared to the VATS matrix overlay (only 1-2% less chance at the same distance). This upgrade requires the Science! rank 3 perk to construct. The potential benefit of using sensor array compared to VATS matrix overlay is the carry-over to stealing and lockpicking attempts, and any other benefits of an increased perception stat. (Tested on a stationary turret over multiple distances, comparing VATS hit chance with VATS matrix overlay and sensor array).
- Perception also determines the distance at which enemies appear as red blips on your HUD.
Fiber optics (3)
VATS matrix overlay (1)
- Can be crafted at Power armor stations