Triage is a perk from Van Buren, the canceled Fallout 3 project by Black Isle, and J.E. Sawyer's Fallout Role-Playing Game.
You see the exact hit points, fatigue, natural damage thresholds, primary statistics, and special health status (broken limbs, using chems, etc.) of any living creature you examine.
The perk description was posted by J.E. Sawyer on the Interplay forum in 2003.