Throwing hatchets require a Strength of 1 and a Melee Weapons skill of 25 to be used effectively. Like their non-thrown counterparts, throwing hatchets inflict an additional 50% in Limb Damage and are one of the most damaging thrown weapons (with the exception of Explosives). However, they are extremely heavy when compared to throwing spears and knives, and are also much less common.
Hatchets can be used at much greater ranges than throwing spears or throwing knives, especially in V.A.T.S.
Throwing hatchets, spears, and knives are more effective when coated with poisons.
Throwing hatchets, spears, and knives cannot be picked up and re-used once thrown.
If thrown at a miscellaneous object, such as a glass pitcher, the hatchet will disappear as it makes contact instead of sticking into the object.
The throwing hatchet has very high item health relative to most other melee weapons, and as such would degrade very slowly, even though you can only attack once with it as it becomes unretrievable once thrown.