[platforms tag needed] The help text states that the thrower takes no damage. However the logic involved in the accompanying perk Smart Grenade actually makes it only apply to the player. In fact if any NPC were to throw one, the player will receive no damage and anyone else in the blast range would. [verification overdue]
This article is too short to provide more than rudimentary information about the subject. You can help Nukapedia by expanding it.