During the Resource Wars, they sent a spy submarine to Point Lookout. However, an unspecified event caused the crewmen to ditch. They then sent two spies to try and destroy the sub before the Americans could get to it. They had infiltrators in Washington, D.C. and Pittsburgh, and the ghoulified Chinese remnants still inhabit the Mama Dolce's food factory building in D.C. In Pittsburgh, the infiltrators were killed just after the Great War. A dead Chinese remnant with a ham radio can be found in a random encounter, as well as an alive one in a random encounter.
According to Dick Richardson of the Enclave, the Chinese might have been the ones to use a nuclear attack first, as he says, "...and then those damn reds launched...". They launched thousands of bombers and ICBMs who swept across the United States of America, from west-coast to east, according to Carol in Underworld, who says "...we had some warning after the west coast dropped off the map..." when questioned about the Great War. They only targeted major strategic objectives, such as West-Tec and Washington, D.C.. After the Great War, Chinese infiltrators remained in the District of Columbia, taking shelter in Mama Dolce's processing factory. The Shi also survived, and built a society around the salvaged remains of their submarine.