It is a pre-War internment camp where Chinese-Americans (officially considered saboteurs and spies) were imprisoned before being used by Big Mountain scientists for experiments. The inhabitants did not always understand English fully, providing camp guards with an excuse to use violence on them. Subject retrieval methods used by the Big MT staff led to a great amount of distress among the prisoners. After the War, due to the subsequent fallout, some prisoners turned into ghouls, but due to the bomb collars on their necks, could not leave the camp. As it stands, they were forced to eke out a pathetic existence for over two centuries, locked inside the prison camp.
In late 23rd century, Elijah rediscovered Big MT and for a time used Little Yangtze as his base of operations, reverse engineering the technology used to force prisoners into submission for future use.
The prison camp itself consists of a square shaped fenced-in area with four gates, one of them blocked up by mattresses and benches. Each corner of the square has a field tent with many bunk beds. This section is occupied by four crazed ghouls, who were pre-War Chinese-American citizens.
To the north of the camp is a ruined building which was used by Christine Royce as a sniper post. Her rifle, a dose of steady and ammunition can be found on the second floor.
To the south of the camp there is a ridge on which unique ghouls Number 27 and Number 34 spawn.
Outside the east gate of the camp, there is a watchtower which was used as a base of operations by Elijah during his first few days at Big MT. Outside the watchtower are ammunition boxes and Elijah's LAER. A dead Yangtze prisoner is inside the watchtower along with multiple deactivated bomb collars and a broken detonator. A terminal has several log entries from before the War and from Elijah's stay at the Watchtower.
Christine's COS silencer rifle: On the second floor of the ruined building to the north next to Little Yangtze, next to an ammunition box and one steady. (Once the rifle is picked up, three lobotomites will spawn from the surrounding area.)
Elijah's advanced LAER: On the second floor balcony of the Little Yangtze Watchtower near the east gate of Little Yangtze.
With a high volume, you can hear the sound from the speakers that emits signals from Dead Money on the loud speakers above each gate as well as whispers when standing around the makeshift gravestones.
There is a Sierra Madre poster on the floor in the watchtower.
If the survivors chase you near any of the gates, their collars will inevitably explode, killing them.
Many Sentry bots are lying dead or half buried by the entrance facing The Think Tank.
In the Japanese version where human and ghoul characters' body parts cannot be destroyed, most cases of headless bodies are replaced with gore bags. The dead ghoul prisoner in the Little Yangtze watchtower, however, remains as it is (albeit with its head attached).
Little Yangtze gets its name from the Yangtze River, located in China, which is the longest river in all Asia.
Directly south of the western gate is a truck stuck half way into the side of the ridge with a green puddle underneath it. The front half is on the other side of the ridge. With the Wild Wasteland trait, it has the license plate Rokit 88, which is the same as the rocket truck that Buckaroo Banzai drives in the film The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the Eighth Dimension.