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Fallout: New Vegas' Gamebryo engine requires all non-player characters, characters, and script effects to use a weapon to shoot a projectile. Some of these "weapons" are only meant to be used by the non-player character, but can be obtained via console commands.
The same is true for the default weapons used by followers; while usually different from their standard counterparts, they are not meant to be used by the player either.
* DMG / HIT or SHOT: This information comes straight from the G.E.C.K. and shows the damage caused by a single click of the mouse/trigger. For most small guns, that's a single bullet, but for shotguns it's a single shell (containing several small pellets), and for the Gatling laser it's a single beam. This stat is most useful for comparing semi-automatic weapons like rifles, where you can see the full damage caused by a single shot, regardless of how long it takes to load and fire the next one.
DPS: This stands for damage per second.
MDPS: This is the modified damage per second number that takes critical hits into account. It assumes a non-V.A.T.S. attack, a Luck of 5, no perks (Finesse, Survival Expert, etc.), 100 skill and 100 weapon condition.
ROF: This stands for rate of fire in shots per second.
SPRD: This is the Min Spread stat from the G.E.C.K. (the Spread stat is not used). It refers to the accuracy of a ranged weapon. 0 means the weapon can potentially fire perfectly straight, if stance, weapon skill, and weapon condition are optimal. Anything above 0 means the shots may deviate from center by that many degrees regardless of stance, skill, or condition.
CRIT % MULT: The multiplier applied to your character's critical hit chance. This modifier applies to each individual attack you make (e.g. each 5mm bullet fired from your minigun). For example, if your character has a critical hit chance of 5%, and the weapon you're using has a CRIT % MULT of x2, then each shot has a 5% x 2 =10% chance to critically hit. For automatic weapons (assault rifles, SMGs, miniguns, etc.) the Crit % Mult stat in the G.E.C.K. is divided by the G.E.C.K.'s Fire Rate stat, hence the very small multiplier for automatic weapons. This is done to compensate for the sheer number of bullets being fired. Note that single V.A.T.S. attack, with automatic weapons, only checks for critical hit once, applying damage bonus for all bullets in such attack if critical hit is done.
CRIT DMG: The amount of damage that is added when you score a critical strike. The more specialized Sneak Attack Critical deals twice the damage of a common critical strike.