It's a small, collectible model of an Eyebot mounted on a stand. Though this item appears in Fallout 4, its design is based on the Eyebot from Fallout 3 and Fallout: New Vegas, a trait which shared by most collectible models in Fallout 4.
If you attempt to sell this item to a vendor, you will receive the message: "You cannot sell quest items". This would seem to suggest that it may be used in a quest somewhere. Also, do not leave 'on show' in settlement locations otherwise NPCs can steal them - and you will not be able to find it. OK if kept in a container.
However according to the Vault Dweller's Survival Guide (Page 91), the models are all "knickknacks" to decorate your home with or to be sold, no mention of a quest.
UPDATE April 14 2016: On the Xbox One, it is sellable.
- Can be found in Vault-Tec lunchbox and are rather rare.
- Fallon's department store on the second floor, on a metal shelf in a room with a Protectron and locked terminal.
- fo4aut In a locked security station just after entering The Mechanist's lair, on a filing cabinet opposite the door.
- If placed on a table it tends to fall through the table and fall to the ground, that also happens with the other models.