Chinese bombers, and bombers in general were one of the means through which states of the Fallout world brought nuclear holocaust upon each other. Little is known about their capabilities, but in the Operation: Anchorage add-on for Fallout 3, several Chinese bombers can be seen circling the battlefield overhead, dropping their payload on coordinates delivered from the local listening post, though the bombers circling over the US Army Outpost never seem to deliver any bombs.
The presence and active use of Bombers for the deliverance of nuclear weapons suggests that the arms race had a far different outcome than the one in our world where, far in the future, inter-continental ballistic missiles were only beginning to be widely used, and anti ballistic missiles were in their infancy. Therefore, bombers are, at this point, still a cornerstone in the ability of delivering weapons of mass destruction.
This, however, controversial. Bombers could carry not only free-fall nuclear bombs but also cruise missiles and aeroballistic missiles with nuclear warheads. Improvement of these weapons could well support the existence of bombers in the future of Fallout world.
The bombers that appear in the Operation: Anchorage add-on are purely a script, operating in a similar manner to birds that appear over places like Megaton and so can not be engaged by the Lone Wanderer.