Canada was one or more annexed territory/territories of the United States by 2067. In our world, the country is an independent British Commonwealth, although Fallout media has never revealed whether or not this remained true after the Divergence. The presence of Canada's post-independence flag, however, suggests that the country achieved autonomy in a similar, if not identical, way as in the real world.
Canada was eventually annexed by the United States, involving both the oil crisis and the war with China. Alaska and Canada served as a front line during the Sino-American War, because of the oil interests vested in the north by the United States.
News images from Canada are shown in the intro of Fallout, where amongst the ruins of a Canadian city, two power armor-clad soldiers execute a Canadian wearing combat armor (which may refer to a possible resistance group), while a happy message of reassurance flashes across the screen.
Canada makes its first appearance in the history of the Fallout universe in 2059, though only in the Fallout Bible timeline (all following notes are from the Fallout Bible timeline unless mentioned otherwise).
- The Anchorage Front Line is established, as the United States increases its military presence in Alaska to protect its oil interests. The Anchorage Front Line causes tensions in the United States and Canada, as the United States attempts to pressure Canada into allowing American military units to guard the Alaskan pipeline.
- Winter: As a sign of increasing tension between the two countries, Canada proves reluctant to allow American troops on Canadian soil or allow American planes to fly over Canadian airspace. The United States and Canadian tensions rise, but Canada eventually backs down, and U.S. troops pass through Canada. This sets the stage for the Canadian annexation (which occurs in 2067).
- Canada begins to feel the pressure from the United States military as the U.S. draws upon Canadian resources for the war effort. Vast stretches of timberland are destroyed, and other resources in Canada are stretched to the breaking point.
- The United States' increasing demand for Canadian resources causes protests and riots in several Canadian cities. An attempted sabotage of the Alaskan pipeline is all the military needs as an excuse to begin its annexation of Canada...which in fact had already begun in 2067. The Uprising of Edmonton occurs some time during the annexation.
- February 14: Canada has agreed to be annexed by the U.S. In return, sources say Canada will receive a full 10% of the world's remaining supply of oil, controlled exclusively by the U.S.
- February 15: The House of Representatives and Congress both voted unanimously to impeach the President for jaywalking. 
- January: The United States' annexation of Canada is complete. Canadian protesters and rioters are shot on sight, and the Alaskan Pipeline swarms with American military units under the command of Buzz Babcock. Pictures of atrocities make their way to the United States, causing further unrest and protests.
- January 22: The first domestic use of power armor within the United States for crowd and quarantine control. Units originally serving in China and the Anchorage Front Line find themselves fighting Americans at home. Food riots increase, and many civilians are killed. Several soldiers defect from the military both in Canada and the United States. They are captured, and are sent to military prisons.
2077 - 2281
- October 23 - Unknown: Little is known about Canada after the Great War except speculation based around the city of Ronto, which is mentioned in the Fallout 3 add-on The Pitt. The presence of Marge LeBarge, however, suggests that there is at least one settlement in the region.
Political status after annexationEdit
It is unknown whether there were any changes to the United States 13-commonwealth system after the annexation of Canada. It is possible that Canada was under military rule until annexation was finalized (2075 or 2076) because its population was equal to the population of a very large U.S. Commonwealth. Borders corrections were also possible, e.g. concerning Alaska and the pipelines.
The inscription on the Survivalist's rifle reveal that Canada was a territory of the United States during or after its annexation, suggesting that it may have had a status similar to that of Puerto Rico during that period. It is most likely an occupied territory judging by the significant military presence there in 2077. It also could have just been temporarily classed as an unincorporated territory.
Strangely, however, Canada was shown as separate from the US and Alaska in the VDSG Plate depicting the newspaper cutting stating Alaska had been liberated. The date is 2077, a full year after Canada was supposedly annexed.
Despite this, the ruins in Canada shown in cinematic is evidence that Canada attempted to resist American occupation. The Uprising of Edmonton was one of these rebellions staged by the resistance.
- Marge LeBarge, owner of the Kokoweef Mine, born way up north, on the edge of Lake LeBarge, Yukon.
- Dave Handy, an IT technician who joined the Hubologists.
- Dane, a possible Canadian and a member of the Cathedral in original Fallout. He told the Vault Dweller, "I used to live in Penticton, British Columbia. Or maybe I saw it on a map of the old days." It should be noted that his words may not be taken seriously because his mind appeared to be chaotic when the Vault Dweller was talking to him.
|The following is based on Fallout Tactics and some details might contradict canon.|
- Two organizations present, yet only in special encounters - the CPF (Canadian People's Front) and PFC (People's Front of Canada), which are plays on the "Judean People's Front" and the "Peoples Front of Judea", which are prevalent organizations in Monty Python's Life of Brian film, which are satirizing left wing groups in the UK.
|End of information based on Fallout Tactics.|
|The following is based on Fallout Extreme and has not been confirmed by canon sources.|
- A faction known as the Inuits grew to power in northwestern Canada after the war.
|End of information based on Fallout Extreme.|
- Alaskan Pipeline (Mentioned in Fallout, Fallout 2, Fallout 3, Operation: Anchorage, Fallout Extreme)
- Edmonton (Mentioned in Fallout Tactics)
- British Columbia
- Penticton (Mentioned in Fallout)
- Lake Laberge (Mentioned in Fallout 2)
- In Fallout 3, all mailboxes have a 5% chance of having some old mail addressed to residents who were not able to secure a spot in local Vaults. The letter lists other sites, including "newly annexed Canada", as a possible alternative.
- In the Fallout: New Vegas add-on Honest Hearts, the Survivalist's rifle has "Long Branch Arsenal, Ontario, USA Territory" painted on its side.
- In the Fallout: New Vegas base game, the unique missile launcher Annabelle bears maple leaves on the front of the weapon, a potential reference to the maple leaf on the flag of Canada.
- In Fallout: New Vegas, while doing the quest Birds of a Feather, Jean-Baptiste Cutting asks the Courier to find Cass at Mojave Outpost. When speaking to Cass about this quest she makes a pun about Jean-Baptiste's name. Saying it sounds "Canadarian" which is slang for Canadian.
Canada is shown briefly and mentioned in Fallout, and is mentioned in Fallout 2, Fallout 3 and its add-ons Operation: Anchorage and Point Lookout, Fallout: New Vegas and its add-ons Honest Hearts and Lonesome Road, Fallout 4, Fallout Tactics, Fallout: Brotherhood of Steel, Project V13, and the Fallout Bible, and was going to appear in the canceled Fallout Extreme.
- ↑ These news images are inspired by real history - in 1968 during the Vietnam War general Nguyen Ngoc Loan executed Nguyen Van Lem in a similar fashion
- ↑ The information comes from the Sierra Depot GNN transcript holodisk, which Chris Avellone discards as non-canon, as it conflicts with the timeline compiled during the development of Fallout. According to Avellone's Fallout Bible, it was modified by the Sierra Army Depot soldiers.
- ↑ Sierra Depot GNN transcript: "Both houses stated that the President is not above the law and should have known better than to jaywalk. Both sides deny this had anything to do with the recent annexation of Canada."