To defeat your enemies, know their weaknesses! You can view a target's specific damage resistances in V.A.T.S.
While this will reveal resistances for an enemy (in addition to a crossed-out symbol for immunities) it will not display any special characteristics. The main example of this is that ghouls are listed as having 1000 radiation resistance, when in truth they have a special effect that lets radiation damage heal them, making the resistance moot. This can prove useful in detecting synths among the settlers and general populace as the synth component adds resistances so if the person has only clothing, the boost in armor will be very noticeable.
Also, while previous versions of Awareness (and for Fallout: New Vegas, the similar Living Anatomy) also revealed the enemy's health, Fallout 4's version only reveals the enemy's level, which can sort of be used to approximate how tough the enemy is.